For comparison, I will point out https://arxiv.org/abs/hep-th/0009153, a theory of gravity based on gauging SO(4,1). The philosophy as well as the details would be quite different to yours, e.g. I see nothing about gauging mass (if adopting a gauge is indeed what’s involved in the selection of mass coordinate that you envisage).

]]>What is the common ground between the two? A pair of photons with opposite polarisations is equivalent to a pair of a neutrino and an antineutrino. What about the three generations of neutrinos? Well, we know from experiment that the generation of a neutrino depends on its environment, so has no fundamental meaning, so we can ignore that. Now what have we got? 9 dimensions out of 10. Where is the 10th dimension?

In electromagnetism it is pure energy, in gravity it is pure mass, in particle physics it is the Higgs boson – I say tomato, you say tomaido, let’s call the whole thing off. It is a concept alien to physics, but central to metaphysics – it is the here-and-now.

]]>In the old days, time was measured with gravitational clocks. Nowadays, time is measured with electromagnetic clocks. Therefore you have to be very careful which kind of clock you are talking about when you are discussing fundamental physics. No-one in mainstream physics even considers the possibility that gravitational clocks could tell a different time from electromagnetic clocks. But they do, and many people outside the mainstream are very well aware of this.

In the early scientific age, time was measured with some very clever devices (pendulum clocks, spring watches) that combined gravitational elements (weight) with electromagnetic (mechanical) elements to measure particular compromises between gravitational and electromagnetic time. Therefore a practical concept of time grew up, which is a compromise. My researches indicate that it was approximately 22% gravitational and 78% electromagnetic. BUT because of the practical nature of the devices, the exact proportion of gravitational to electromagnetic time changed slightly from year to year.

This effect caused serious problems in physics in the 1950s and 1960s, when experiments became accurate enough to be able to detect the difference between gravitational and electromagnetic time. The solution that was adopted was to define time as electromagnetic time, and completely ignore gravitational time. Now look what a fine mess that got us into!

]]>Or to put it another way, what you see (with electromagnetism) is not what you get (with gravity).

]]>So at the end of the day you have a choice of gauge: Lorentzian or Euclidean. If you choose Lorentzian, in order to get electromagnetism looking nice, then (a) you get a horrible mess mixing the weak force with electromagnetism, and (b) gravity is awful. If you choose Euclidean, then (a) the mass-changes in the quantised weak force correspond to macroscopic mass-changes in the theory of gravity, (b) automatic electro-weak unification, and (c) no dark matter and no dark energy. Oh, and quantised gravity using only the Dirac matrices – with gamma_0 and gamma_5 interchanged!

I know which I prefer.

]]>But it is not obvious that, when you change from considering galaxy rotation curves to considering galaxy clusters or even larger structures, this timescale does not change. My back-of-an-envelope calculation says it should be nearer to 1000 times the age of the universe, which would be very interesting if true!

Moreover, the tensor also includes momentum x momentum terms, which should be “independent” of distance and dependent only on time. Such terms would normally be called “dark energy” or “cosmological constant”, but they are far from constant (cf. the Hubble tension). One curious fact that comes immediately out of the group theory is that these terms have the opposite sign from the Newtonian mass-energy term, so that these terms describe a repulsive force, or an accelerating expansion of the universe.

BUT this may be an illusion caused by our choice of coordinate system. Can we change our coordinate system to remove any local momentum, so that the dark energy terms do not appear? Watch this space.

]]>At what point do the momentum terms become important? In my model, they become important as the velocity increases towards the speed of light. But that is because my model uses the change in mass, rather than the mass itself. If we use the change in momentum that my model requires, and compare with the standard Newtonian mass instead of the rate of change of mass, then the critical point becomes an acceleration rather than a velocity. That is what MOND has observed.

One of the big problems in MOND is to explain this critical acceleration, which appears to be a universal constant, approximately equal to the speed of light divided by the age of the universe. My model suggests that it is not a universal constant, but a calibration of mass against change in mass in order to derive Newtonian gravity from a more general model. Calibration of Newtonian gravity on a Solar System scale neglects our acceleration towards the centre of the galaxy, and therefore this is the point at which Newtonian gravity departs from reality. It has indeed been verified that this is of the same order of magnitude as the critical acceleration in MOND. In other words, my model explains this parameter, and shows that the age of the universe has nothing to do with it.

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